Art Terminology

HACKNEY FLASHERS

Hackney Flashers was a women’s arts collective active between 1974 and 1980. Most of the group were photographers and defined themselves as socialists and feminists. Introduction to Hackney Flashers The group’s name was a playful pun on the flash of the camera, their medium of choice. They used documentary photography as a tool in their …

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HAPPENING

Happenings were theatrical events created by artists in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Happenings were the forerunners of performance art and in turn emerged from the theatrical elements of dada and surrealism. The name was first used by the American artist Allan Kaprow in the title of his 1959 work 18 Happenings in 6 …

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HARD EDGE PAINTING

Hard edge painting is an approach to abstract painting that became widespread in the 1960s and is characterized by areas of flat colour with sharp, clear (or ‘hard’) edges. The term ‘hard-edge painting’ was coined by Californian critic Jules Langster in 1959. He used it to describe the work of those abstract painters, particularly on …

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HEIDELBERG SCHOOL

The Heidelberg School was a late nineteenth century art movement named after the village of Heidelberg in Australia where a small group of artists would go to paint en plein air (painting outdoors and on the spot). Sometimes described as Australian impressionism, the Heidelberg School developed an informal, evocative and naturalistic style that evoked the …

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HI-RED CENTER

Hi-Red Center was a short-lived radical art collective that emerged in post-war Japan and was active between 1963 and 1964. Founded in Tokyo by the artists Genpei Akasegawa, Natsuyuki Nakanishi and Jiro Takamatsu, Hi-Red Center created happenings and events that were socially reflective, anti-establishment and anti-commercial. Inspired by Japan’s neo-dada movement and Fluxus, the group …

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HISTORY PAINTING

The term history painting was introduced in the seventeenth century to describe paintings with subject matter drawn from classical history and mythology, and the Bible – in the eighteenth century it was also used to refer to more recent historical subjects. The term ‘history painting’ was introduced by the French Royal Academy in the seventeenth …

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HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL

Hudson River school is the collective name given to a number of nineteenth century North American landscape painters who depicted scenes of natural beauty in areas that included the Hudson River Valley and the Catskill Mountains. Prominent artists associated with the school include Thomas Cole and Frederic Edwin Church. The artists were active between the …

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HYPER-REALISM

The term hyper-realism appeared in the early 1970s to describe a resurgence of particularly high fidelity realism in sculpture and painting at that time. It is also called super-realism, and in painting is synonymous with photorealism. Leading painters were Chuck Close, Robert Bechtle, Richard Estes, Audrey Flack, Ralph Goings. In sculpture the outstanding practitioner was …

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